Pre Diabetes

(a.k.a Impaired Fasting Glucose, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, or Insulin Resistance)

What is pre-diabetes?

Nearly one in four adults over the age of 25 years has either diabetes or pre-diabetes (impaired glucose metabolism). There are two conditions that fit into this category – Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT). There is still a lot more to be learned about pre-diabetes. Without treatment, not everyone with Impaired Fasting Glucose will progress to Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Type 2 diabetes. Likewise, not everyone with Impaired Glucose Tolerance will progress to Type 2 diabetes.

Yogurt with Fruit

The following explains the differences:

Impaired Fasting Glucose: Diagnosed when the ‘fasting’ blood glucose level is higher than the normal or non-diabetic range, but does not rise abnormally after having a sweet glucose drink (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test).

Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Diagnosed when the blood glucose level at 2 hours during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (2 hours after given a sweet drink that contains 75g of glucose) is abnormal but not high enough to diagnose diabetes.

What is Insulin Resistance? People with Type 2 diabetes are usually insulin resistant. This means that their pancreas is making insulin but the insulin is not working as well as it should. The pancreas responds by working harder to make more insulin. Eventually it can’t make enough to keep the glucose balance right and blood glucose levels rise.

Adopting a healthy lifestyle may delay the need for tablets and/ or insulin. However it is important to know that if you do need tablets and/ or insulin, this is just a natural progression of the disease. By taking tablets and/ or insulin as soon as they are needed, complications caused by diabetes can be reduced.

Can Type 2 Diabetes be avoided? Evidence shows that people with pre-diabetes are at high risk of progressing to Type 2 Diabetes. They can delay and reduce the risk of its development by adopting lifestyle changes, such as regular physical activity, healthy eating and if necessary losing weight.


How can Ingrid help you? Ingrid will provide you with the most up-to-date nutrition information in relation to diabetes. She will help you understand and provide you with comprehensive information handouts on:

  • Carbohydrate – Carbohydrate foods and effect on blood glucose levels, types of carbohydrate foods (Glycemic Index) and how much to eat.

  • Protein

  • Fats – Different types of fats, which type of fats to eat, food sources, how much to eat.

  • Alcohol

  • Sugar

  • Artificial Sweeteners

  • Tips for recipe modification to prepare a healthy meal.

  • Healthy snack ideas

  • Dining out

Ingrid will develop a personalised meal plan suited to your food preferences and lifestyle.